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APPENDIX 



A. TEXTS 

Three folk talcs in Sema are given below. Of these, the first 
two are presented wiih morph by morph analysis. And the last 
one has only the translation. The titles of the stories are : (1) 
The story of Nisapaand Nisala(alovestory); (2) The story of the 
squirrel and the pheasant; and (3) the story of Licapa. 

A.l TEXT 
nisapa eno nisala kinia Yili 
Nisiqm and Nisala dnal story 
The story of Nisapa and Nisala 

khaijilo nisapi eno nisala kima kimaye- 
long ago Nisapa and Nisala dual love. 

Long ago Nisapa and Nisala loved each other. 

kile-ace k+ma atna sini-kfe 

return-make dual life partner 
They decided to become lift 

genuno pulo — wfe 

for agree — past 

partners. 

Pu — aza-no 

father — mother — nominative 

Nisa€a's parents were unwilling to let Nisala go to 

nisapa — ki-lo pu — wu nis4 — mo — no 

Nisapa -house-in let go wiiling-not-nomina- 

Nisapa's-housc * tive 



decide- 


—past 


ace « 


ikemu nisala 


make . 


but Nisala 




But 


nisala 


pestno 


Nisala 


let 



ace . tiyinuno nisapi 

make . so Nisapa 

So (they) said like this to Nisapa 

187 



wilo 
near 



hi-tdy 
tbis^ttke 



188 



11 pi . 


"nisapa. 


no-no kucrfnb 


this say . 


Nisapa, 


you-nominative really 




"Nisapa, 


if you really 


nisala 


luni-si 


aye suna-ye timi-no 


Nisala 


want-do 


if goJd-focus marker 
man-nominative 


want to do 


(marry) 


bring to our home 


itha 


ce-mo-ke 


pesino ni-kVlo 


use 


habitual-n< 


5g-past buying I-house-in 



the gold that was not used by any maa. 

siyi-lo pi . ike nisapa-no suna 

bring-imp say . thus Nisapa-nominativegold 
Thus Nisapa, for giving 

ci-Y* nisala-pu-aza ktma ci-we 

give-come Nisala -father-mother dual give-past 

gold, came to Nisala's parent's house and gave (the gold). 

ikemu kila-kipu Yolokilo 

but wed-wait during 

But when the bridegroom waited 

alhok+thrt nisala-pu-aza k+ma-no 

always Nisala-father-mother dual-nominative 

(for Nisala), Nisala's parents always used to say that 



nisala -ye si-am 


pi-ce-y. asakharlo 


Nisala-focus nuirker sick-is 


say-habitual-past, last-in 


she was sick. 


At last^ 



nisapa-no akha-ce mla pesino yivtno 

Nisapa-nominative bambo tesket-make work buying coming 
buying a bambo basket^ came and carried away 



189 

nisala . xapu ti-we fdsapa eno nisala 

Nisala • carry go-past Nisapa and Nisala 

Nisala. Thereafter 

ktma-ye alokotono si-xi ace u-we 

dual— focus joy fully do— live make go-^past 

Nisapa and Nisala lived happily. 

A. 2 TEXT 
akili-HM> arl kima Till 
sqairrel - and phesant dual story 

The story of the Squinel and the phesant 

khaiilo, akili— no art kiraa asow 

long ago, squirrel-and phesant dual deep friend 

Long ago, a squirrel and a phesant made intimate 

si— «ice. kini— no tHo laktfi — lo timi 

do — make. two-nominative day one-in man 

friendship. The two visited daily the traps laid by 

Hot ikaw. arl— no atorl si 

trap visit. phesant-nominative first do 

people. The phesant would (enter) 

timi licfe lono k+time— we, aye 

man trap from catch— past then 

the trap first and get caught. Then 

akili-Hio ak4st kift 

squirrel-nominative trap instrument rope 

cutting with his teeth, the rope of the trap instrument, 

ktthavece— no ari xa-lu-ce 

cut with teeth-nominative phesant save-can-habitual 

the squirrel could save the phesant. 



190 

ike asokha — ^lo avi — ^no akili 

but last-at phesant-nominativc squirrel 

But one day, the phesant caused the squirrel to go in 

pe — lono sLiiri si-pe akili— no.?, 

cause — from first do-cause Squirrel-nominative 

first When the squirrel 

timi licfe lono kitiraiye keloyo 

man trap from catdi in a trap when 

got caught in the trap taid by men, 

avi-ye kimt si-ci mla-we 

phesant-focus nothing do-give potential negative-past. 

The phesant could do nothing. 



eno akili-ye tile -hi 

and squirrel-focus marker there-emphatic 

and the squirrel ended his life there itself. 

pa klht asokha-si-we 

his life end-do-past. 

A. 3 Licapt rili 

KhaYi rothu lakhllo lica pano aphu lakhilo iztu pi ke. pano aphu 
ktct kt'mci apiyi pike ktreftuno aptmukht no tinll qhu nomu 
pasas^ ml pike. 

tirafiuno paye acanipii kini cime akeii pama kilo uwe pike, ike 
pama actnipif wilo ana, we astibo eno azi zaqhild iplpi.eno pama 
ac^nipuno kvbake keu belho eno zhaqHl moi^ipi keloye panopj. 
''ana asi^i eno aziri, ino pucheni. ipeno pa unh^", pa khanhM 
eno pa lukobolono athikisi asi eno aziri ikhiphe pe ceno alikhiilL 
sino pano k^ht cu pf. 

ike thanawye pama acanipusas* atulono ilo^nono airaml luqo 
akucupu klicepe pa piye pepi. pano inlzu *huno khiino lu tipanolu 



191 

kya? huvi nenu somhi. k^mst huno khunolu kya? tipanolu hutri 
kheot somhi ktmot ipi kicece voabalo ahunilli lakhL no kicc kithi- 
kha pi. 

ike aneniili tipaw khunulu kya pi kelo ana aityimo pe. ''ifo ikuzo 
hefiulike ipepi. tile hino licapano alu hupaw. arasii piti anise pm 
peni ipipi. eno pama astnipu wilo okuzaye sohukiba xapuwo ale 
silo" ipipi. ike licapano pi kew toy pamano alesi akcloye timino 
pama acinipif zuku acepi. 

ale siluwe kimca licapano iyino pama wilo okuzoye ah6nu xopuwo 
alelo silo ipi. eno puo sikhal-u kemca licapano itrerw pama kilo 
itiziye okuzu z+keweno ini alo. ikemu kiimo simowe pe. terenujio 
licapano thanaw pama actnipu wilo oWzoye akuzoj^u puwo sLmono 
apfii ipi. ike paraono pumlawe kewriuno aheiiuti lakhlikhiipc 
alaphilo westwe keuthono akhucopu pukhawe ipi. ike licapano 
tipaw peo siwelo ipi pama wilopi eno pamano tisiwe. tithe tho'- 
huye ahenuti parino. niatikt ipino mtpa. iperi kemca, ahenu 
ak+cdpii pittta zepi ni kathW m thisori no malhaphe. nictniTi 
**ipi^* impale khawe pike, eno athino ale ciloiwe pi. ike tipathyuno 
avi piti zeli pe alulo xustno alu cicii ituwe pike. 

THE STORY OF LICAPA (ORIGIN OF RICE CULTIVATION) 

One day Licapa visited a village and wanted to lodge with the 
village chief. But he had wounds all over his body So none 
of the villagers liked him and no one talked to him. 

Therefore he went to a small house where two orphen sisters lived. 
The two sisters had no rice or other eatables with them. But 
when he visited them, they gladly received him in their house. 
Then he asked the two sisters to cook curry, meat and rice and also 
to prepare wine. The younger one said to him, ^we do not have 
rice, meat or wine\ To this he replied that he brought them with 
him. He took rice from his elbow, meat from his knee and wine 
from his tigh and gave them to prepare. The three together ate 
the food. 

In the following morning, he took the two sisters to the outskirts 
of the village and asked them whost field was that one. They 
replied that was such and such a person's* field; Then that one. 
They cuFsed themselves and said that field also belongs to others. 
At last on the out skirts, there was a small field where only pumpkin 
was sown. They replied that that field was theirs. 

Thereupon he took them there and instructed as follows ^^my 
sisters, you build a big barn with its posts fabricated at the end and 



192 

pluck all the pumpkin and carry home for putting them in the 
tern". And the two sisters acted as per his instructions. 

He asked them to listen to what will happen in the barn. They 
did not sleep airf was observing the barn. But nothing happened 
that night. Next morning licapa told that they did not bring 
ail the pumpkins in the barn. Then the two sisters replied that 
since they could not carry all of them one small one was thrown 
away on the way side. He asked them to bring that and put in the 
barn. And added if they had told the truth, something would 
have happened in the previous night. That night, the pumpkin 
which they put last in the barn burst out saying that 'I am attki 
(a dwarf variety of rice). All the other pumpkins said their names 
one by one. AH the pumpkins burst out and became rice grains 
and the barn was full of rice. After that people used to sow 
seeds of rice grain from that day till now. They also began to- 
worship him. 



CilL Grammar Series-7 



^ 



PL 

4001 
|S5 
iS78 








*>^. 



Sema 
Grammar 



Central Institute of Indian Languages, 1980 



First Published 



Marcl. 1980 
Chailra 1902 



M. V. SREEDHAR 



Price: Rs. liO -o- 




xpjtRjTTT? 



CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF INDIAN LANGUAGES 

MYSORE -570 006 



PUBLISHED AT THE CENTRAL INSTTTUTE OF INDUN LANGUAGES, 
MANASAGANGOTRI, MYSORE— 570 006 BY D. P. PATTANAYAK, 
DIRBCIOR, AND PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA PRESS, 

NASIK-^22 006.